2 min read

Leadership of humans is like gardening. You plant the seeds and you provide the water. The plant itself is the only part of the whole system that can do the actual growing. Giant trees grow from seeds, but nobody makes that happen.


Rational persuasion, show how it is relevant

Collaboration, step in and resolve problems

Participation, ask them to take part in process

Exchange, offer a desired resource

Personal appeals, friendship or loyalty

Apprising, explain why this benefits her

Inspirational, create strong emotions

Legitimating, a higher order says so

Pressure, the last resort

Followers should feel them as authentic and sincere.



Diagnose, listen, understand the real reason

Show you consider pros and cons and approach even-handedly and fairly

Clarify false beliefs


Set achievable goals

Broke large goals into small ones

Explain why, how, what

Empower them to act and be creative

One caution is that punishment should be used sparingly and only in extreme cases because it can lead to resentment.

high morale-> effective leadership, shared effort, trust, and mutual respect.

Lead by example

It means putting the organization and subordinates above personal self-interest, career, and comfort.

A leader who projects confidence is an inspiration to followers. Subordinates will follow leaders who are comfortable with their own abilities and will question the leader who shows doubt.

A leader who shows hesitation in the face of setbacks can trigger a chain reaction among others.

Overconfidence is bad too


Self awareness

It does not take long for followers to become suspicious of a leader who acts confident but does not have the competence to back it up.

Effective leaders connect with their followers by sharing hardships and communicating openly to clearly see and feel what goes on from a subordinate’s perspective.

Military and civilian leaders must ask: would I readily do what I am asking them to do?

Creates shared understanding

Listens actively

engaging communication

watch your own thoughts from a distance

draw a sharp line between your thoughts and your speech.

mark of strength is not to take yourself too seriously

January 1, 2020