Network Layers

1 min read

  1. application HTTP, FTP

  2. Presentation Encoding, encryption. Presents data to upper layer ASCII, JPEG, HTML, MP3

  3. session establishes, manages and terminates connections

  4. Transport (Segment) TCP, UDP

  5. Network (Packet) IP

  6. Data-link (Frame) Error Detection and Control of Data 802.11, Ethernet

  7. Physical (Binary) Ethernet, USB, Bluetooth

in other words

USB-> ethernet -> IP -> TCP, UDP -> RPC -> TLS -> http, smtp, ftp, soap, ssh

yet another

App, http

Presentation, jpeg


Transport, tcp

Network, ip

Data link, ethernet

Physical, usb

[What every developer should know about TCP Roberto Vitillo’s Blog](

February 26, 2020